8th Grade Science Supports

Scientific Method
  • Observation- what I see, taste, touch, smell, hear
  • Inference- what I guess, assume
  • Prediction- a future statement with words like, “will,” “might,” “could” etc
  • Hypothesis Statement- If (inference), then (prediction)
  • Independent Variable- what I choose/change in my experiment
    • Ex: The amount of light I expose the grass to
  • Dependent Variable- what I measure at the end of my experiment
    • Ex: The growth of the grass
  • Controlled Variable- what I keep consistent in my experiment
    • Ex: The type of grass, the amount of time since it was planted, the watering schedule
  • Bias- my preferences that cause unfair/inaccurate results
  • Ex: If the grass needs light to grow, then grass in the shade will not grow well.
Force + Motion
  • Newton’s Three Laws of Motion
    • If the net force of an object is 0 then the object will not change its motion
    • Acceleration of an object is equal to the net force acting on the object divided by the mass of the object
    • When 1 object exerts force on another, the second object exerts equal force in the opposite direction
  • Contact Force- When objects exert a push or a pull through direct contact (ex: drag, friction)
  • Noncontact Force- When objects exert a push or pull with no contact (ex: gravity, magnetism)
  • Peak Force- The moment when forces are equal and opposite during a collision
  • Force- Any push or pull
  • Kinetic Energy- The amount of motion present in a system (more movement, more energy)
  • Free Body Diagram- A model showing all the forces acting on objects (making sure to center the forces and show the direction and intensity using arrows)
Sound Waves
How sound waves work?
  • Frequency– How fast a wave travels
    • High frequency– scrunched up, high pitch note
    • Low frequency– spread out, low pitch note
  • Amplitude– How tall a wave is
    • High amplitude– tall wave, loud sound
    • Low amplitude– short wave, quiet sound
  • Kinetic Energy– Energy of motion (how fast particles are moving)
Sound Waves! - Fun Kids - the UK's children's radio station
  • Electricity: when electrons flow through a conductive material (like metal)
  • Magnetism: when electrons flow together in a material, causing a magnetic field 
  • Electromagnet: when a wire (or other impermanent magnet) has electricity flowing through it, causing it to generate a magnetic field


  • Solar: referring to our sun
  • Lunar: referring to our moon
  • Orbit: circling an object
  • Elevation: how high up something is
  • Elliptical: type of oval
  • Rotation: spinning around a point
  • Axis: a point something spins around
  • Annual: Happens every year
  • Diurnal: Happens every day
  • Hemisphere: Half of a sphere (we divide the Earth into southern and northern hemispheres)
  • Umbra: darker shadow (reddish because of refraction through the atmosphere)
  • Penumbra: lighter, wide shadow (blue or purplish because of refraction)

North Star: does not appear to move because the axis points directly to it

Seasons: are caused by the axis tilting towards the sun or away from the sun:

Lunar Phases:

Simulation from class: https://ccnmtl.github.io/astro-simulations/lunar-phase-simulator/

Light review:


Formation of the Solar System

As particles in space become closer and closer, a new object can form. The mass of the new object will grow, so the force of gravity increases.