Scientific Method

Light and Matter

Light- information for our eyes (without light traveling from objects to our eyes, we can’t see)

• Reflection- when light bounces off of a surface (not just a mirror, but any object!)
• Concave Mirror- a mirror that curves inward (like a cave). When light hits a concave mirror, there is a focal point and the reflection is upside down.
• Convex Mirror- a mirror that curves outward. When light hits a convex mirror, there is no focal point and the reflection is right side up.
• Focal Point- a point where light beams cross, causing the image to be upside down
• Photon- Energy particle of light
• Electromagnetic Wave- The spectrum of all light (visible and invisible)
• Wave Height- How tall a wave is
• Amplitude- How tall a wave is (from the middle to the top)
• Frequency- How spread out a wave is/ how scrunched up it is (also, how fast it is traveling)

Thermal Energy- How much heat energy a particle has (high T.E. is HOT!)

Kinetic Energy- How much motion a particle has (high K.E. is moving a lot!)

Atom- Smallest particle of matter

Molecule- More than one atom stuck together with a chemical bond

Crystal- repeating pattern of atoms stuck together with chemical bonds

Conduction- When particles hit each other, causing energy to transfer

Convection- When hot particles float up and cold particles sink down

Radiation- When electromagnetic waves (like sunlight) are absorbed by a particle

Thermal Energy
• Condensation- Particles of gas cool down, get denser, and become liquid
• Evaporation- Particles of liquid get warmer, get less dense, and become gas
• Density- how much stuff in some space (high density= lots of stuff in a little space, low density= not much stuff in the space)
Weather

Step 1: Radiation- Sun warms the Earth’s ground particles

Step 2: Conduction- The Earth’s particles warm the air particles

Warm fronts have warmer air high up + high humidity

Cold fronts have colder air high up + low humidity

Condense: particles increase in density (from gas to liquid, causing rain or snow to fall

Earth’s Structure

• The Earth is layered because of the different densities of each material. The core is the most dense, the crust is the least dense.
• The plates move around like a conveyer belt
• The continents have crashed together and broken apart many times in Earth’s history

I identify Igneous Rocks by the following characteristics:

• Very Hard (usually)
• Bubbly/full of holes (Extrusive)
• Full of crystals and speckles (Intrusive)

I identify Metamorphic Rocks by the following characteristics:

• Pretty Hard
• All one flat color (Non-foliated)
• Stripes and layers that are not straight (Foliated)

I identify Sedimentary Rocks by the following characteristics:

• Soft/powdery
• Flat layers (layered sedimentary- sometimes with fossils!)
• Filled with smaller rocks and sand (conglomerate)